About the Pages
Although not credited specifically, in all cases information on the pages has been sourced from one or more of the sites listed at the bottom of each page.
Except for a very few updates, the taxonomy follows: Pohl et al; 2018: Annotated checklist of the moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Canada and Alaska.
|Genus + species
||Synonyms are listed after the specific name (in brackets) only when one or more sources are using it instead of the preferred name.
Alternative common names are enclosed in round brackets. If in square brackets they are my own suggestions where no common name is apparent. Most of these are simply parsed from the Latin or Greek although there are a couple where I let my sense of humour get the upper hand.
|Phylo: xxxxxx||Six digits: Phylogenetic sequence number, aka Phylo or P3 number as published in: "Pohl G.R., B. Patterson, and J. Pelham; 2016: Annotated taxonomic checklist of the Lepidoptera of North
America, North of Mexico.
A new cataloguing system intended to be more dynamic than the "Hodges" system.
|Hodges: xxxx||Four or Five digits: Numbering system for the lepidoptera laid out in a 1983 publication (Hodges et al; 1983: Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico (MONA)).
There has been no comprehensive update of this system to reflect changes in taxonomy since first published, changes since have largely been ad hoc.
|Size:||When available, wingspan (WS) or forewing length (FWL) has been taken from the pages at Bug Guide, although other sources (usually EHS, PNW, or Wikipedia) may have been used instead. In a few instances, I was able to glean this information from the individual images at BG.|
|Range: (Can):||Canadian range data is taken from Pohl et al; 2018. In this publication Alaska is also included, and Labrador is given distinct status from the island of Newfoundland so are included here in the same manner.|
|Range: (NA):||This field usually links to the range maps at MPG which seem to be the most comprehensive. Good record maps are also available on the BAMONA, EF, EHS, and PNW sites, although the latter three encompass only their local regions. All indicate specimen records from one or several university and museum collections, and/or submitted photographs.|
|Range: (World):||Usually indicated in the Wikipedia articles. For some species however, it was necessary to search the European sites or note locations in the Hosts database.|
|Season: (BC):||Taken from the flight data charts at MPG as the best verified data available for the province. These dates reflect the best information available to them and may not coincide precisely with those dates found under 'Local Data'.|
|Food:||Often taken from the Hosts database. A comprehensive list of larval food sources, although sometimes listed under a synonymic name. In many cases, I have reduced a reference to the generic name of several hosts, Poplar for example might refer to any Populus spp: Poplars, Aspens, and/or Cottonwoods singly or as an aggregate, Stonefruit to any Prunus spp, and Bramble to any or several of the Rubus spp.|
|Observations:||Number of days when one or more moths were recorded. Multiple individuals, unless in great numbers, are not usually noted. To prevent one evening session from spanning two dates I now use UTC, which in this part of the world starts a new day at 4, or 5 pm (depending on savings time).|
|Year(s) recorded:||List of each year at least one observation was made.|
|First flight:||Earliest record (month and day) regardless of year.|
|Last flight:||Latest record.|
|FWL:||ForWing Length: Measured from base to apex. In 2016 a steel rule was included in many shots, and randomly since.|
Atlas of Siberian Lepidoptera (1000 Siberian Butterflies and Moths)|
I have included those species either considered holarctic or introduced to North America. Beautifully mounted and photographed with dorsal and ventral views of pinned specimens, I wish I could have included more of these.
Barcode of Life Data Systems — University of Guelph|
This lab is dedicated to assessing the DNA "barcode" (a small segment of the DNA) to determine cladistic relationships.
Bug Guide — Iowa State University|
Comprehensive site for all insects (and arthropods in general), live images, taxonomy, ID, range, habitat, food, &c.
Butterflies and Moths of North America|
General data often missing, but does have range maps and live images.
EFauna BC — University of British Columbia|
Species accounts for moths are generally sparse, but does have range maps and live images.
E.H.Strickland Museum — University of Alberta|
Species accounts very good, but entirely lacking for some species. Images usu. of pinned specimens.
Hosts Database — Natural History Museum (London)|
Very good database, some species have several hundred entries, each with location by country or continent. The taxonomy however is not necessarily up to date for either host or dependent.
Formerly 'European Butterflies and Moths', and now with global ambitions. Range maps (for Europe) and live images, brief habitat description, host plants, flight times.
The scope of this site is limited to those micromoths found in Illinois but is often cited.
Moth Photographers Group — University of Mississippi|
Excellent resource for visual ID, images of live moths and pinned specimens, and includes some caterpillars and genetailia. Range maps do not extend further than 129° W and 58°N. Range and flight data are not restricted by these bounds.
Pacific Northwest Moths — Western Washington University|
Coverage from N.California to S.Alaska, east to BC border, parts of Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada. Does not include Geometridae or any of the micromoths. Large images of pinned specimens, good descriptions, good maps.
Pacific Northwest Moths — Western Washington University|
An extensive reference for terms and anatomy specific to lepidoptera.
Spencer Museum of Entomology — University of British Columbia|
No data, large images of pinned specimens.
Tortricids of Agricultural Importance — USDA|
Adult and larval keys, images of pinned individuals and genetalia.
Brief species accounts, wingspan, larval hosts, ID, flight times, live images.
Coverage uneven, some species have the shortest account possible (little more than family, genus, species, if at all) while others have extensive write-ups.